Ferrofluids



Descargar 29.64 Kb.
Fecha de conversión05.11.2017
Tamaño29.64 Kb.

nd_logo_for_word

Explorando productos: Pantallas de cristales líquidos




¡Intenta esto!


  1. Coloca tu mano sobre las láminas de cristal líquido. ¿Puedes ver tu huella? ¿Se ve igual en cada lámina?

1.Coloca el vaso con hielo sobre cada lámina. ¿Deja las mismas marcas de color que tu mano?


:::pictures:img_4196.jpg


:::pictures:img_4199.jpg

¿Qué sucede?

Las hojas de cristal líquido cambian de color en respuesta a cambios de temperatura. Pueden detectar el lugar donde tu mano calentó la lámina o donde fue enfriada por el hielo. A medida que aumenta la temperatura, el color de los cristales líquidos cambia de rojo a naranja, amarillo, verde, azul y púrpura. Cada lámina detecta diferentes niveles de temperatura.


Los cristales líquidos representan una fase entre líquido y sólido. Las moléculas de cristal líquido pueden moverse de forma independiente como en un líquido, pero siguen estando algo organizadas, como en un cristal (sólido).

Ahora intenta lo siguiente…


  1. Quita la pantalla de cristal líquido (LCD) de una calculadora.

  2. Mira de cerca en la parte delantera de la cinta de plástico conectada a la pantalla LCD. En el borde inferior, hay un área de contacto expuesta con bandas metálicas.

  3. Coloca uno de los cables del conector de la batería en el área de contacto expuesto. Lentamente, trata de pasar el otro cable a lo largo del resto de la zona de contacto. ¿Qué sucede?

¿Qué sucede?



::::::::desktop:img_4230_crop.jpg

Partes de la pantalla se iluminan cuando las tocas con los cables de la batería. Eso pasa porque los cristales líquidos en la pantalla de la calculadora cambian de color debido a su reacción a la electricidad (en lugar de temperatura). El campo eléctrico cambia la alineación de las moléculas del cristal líquido y afecta la forma en que la luz pasa a través de ellas, lo que las hace parecer negras.
Cada banda metálica delgada en la cinta dirige electricidad a través de una pequeña región de la pantalla, permitiéndote controlar cuáles partes de la pantalla se vuelven negras utilizando la batería y los cables. Cuando la calculadora está armada, tú diriges la electricidad al apretar los botones

¿Por qué es nanotecnología?



:images:laptop_whatisnano_08_21r.jpg

Computadora portátil con pantalla de cristal líquido

El comportamiento de un material en la macroescala es afectado por su estructura en la nanoescala. Los cambios en la estructura molecular de un material son demasiado pequeños para ser vistos directamente, sin embargo a veces podemos observar los cambios correspondientes en las propiedades del material. En esta actividad los cristales líquidos cambian de color debido al cambio en la disposición de sus moléculas en la nanoescala.
La nanotecnología aprovecha las propiedades especiales de la nanoescala para crear nuevos materiales y dispositivos. Los cristales líquidos se usan en pantallas de teléfonos celulares, pantallas de computadoras portátiles y termómetros electrónicos. En el futuro el mismo equipo de fabricación utilizado para la manufactura de pantallas LCD podría ser transformado para hacer células solares de película delgada.



Learning objectives


  1. The way a material behaves on the macroscale is affected by its structure on the nanoscale.

  2. The liquid crystals in this activity change color as a result of nanoscale shifts in the arrangement of their molecules.

Materials


Assortment of liquid crystal sheets

Calculator

9v battery

Snap connector for 9v battery

Cup of ice
Liquid crystal sheets are available from www.teachersource.com (#LC-ASTX, assortment with different transition temperatures).
The NanoDays physical kit comes with a calculator with the display already removed. To take apart your own calculator, see the instructions below, under “Notes to the presenter.” Choose a calculator with a relatively large liquid crystal display. They’re available at office supply stores and discount stores.

Snap connectors for 9v batteries are available from www.radioshack.com (#270-324).


Notes to the presenter


SAFETY: The face of the calculator display is glass. Handle it with care. Avoid letting visitors handle it.
Before doing this activity, fill the cup with ice. (If you don’t have ice, you can use cool water or eliminate this part of the activity.)
The three liquid crystal sheets are sensitive to different temperature ranges: 20-25C, 25-30C, and 30-35C. If you can’t see a reaction on one of the sheets, try holding the liquid crystal against a cool surface and then warming it with your hands. (You can warm your hands by rubbing them together.)
The contact area for the liquid crystal display is at the bottom edge of the plastic strip attached to the screen. If you have trouble getting numbers to appear on the screen, be sure the battery wires are touching the exposed part of the display wires on the front side of the plastic ribbon. The exposed part has no coating over the metallic stripes. To get the display to work, the wires need to touch two different metallic stripes. For children and individuals with limited dexterity, you may demonstrate the application of electricity to the LCD.
Do not allow the battery wires to touch each other, as that will drain your battery. When you store the kit, remove the snap connector from the battery.
The display has already been removed from the calculator that is provided in the physical NanoDays kit. To remove the screen from a calculator yourself, use a small screwdriver to remove the screws in back of the calculator. Pull apart the front and back of the calculator case. Carefully lift up the display inside. Peel the plastic ribbon off the circuit board, keeping the ribbon attached to the display. To make it easier to peel off the ribbon, you can try warming it with a hair dryer.

Related educational resources


The NISE Network online catalog (www.nisenet.org/catalog) contains additional resources to introduce visitors to nanomaterials:

  • Public programs include Aerogel, Biomimicry: Synthetic Gecko Tape Through Nanomolding, Nanoparticle Stained Glass, Nanosilver—Breakthrough or Biohazard? and World of Carbon Nanotubes.

  • NanoDays activities include Exploring Materials—Ferrofluid, Exploring Materials—Thin Films, and Exploring Structures—Buckyballs.

  • Exhibits include Bump and Roll, Changing Colors, and Unexpected Properties.

nd_logo_for_word


LCD Background Information





What are liquid crystals?
Liquid crystals represent a phase in between liquid and solid. The molecules can move independently, as in a liquid, but remain somewhat organized, as in a crystal (solid).

How do the liquid crystal sheets work?

The liquid crystal sheets used in this activity are thermotropic, which means that they respond to changes in temperature by changing color. As the temperature increases, the color of the liquid crystal changes from red to orange, yellow, green, blue, and purple.



liquid_crystal_nise-1

Liquid crystal

Liquid crystals are made of mixtures of long, thin molecules stacked in rotating layers, like a spiral staircase. This shape is called a helix. When light strikes a liquid crystal, some of the light is reflected. As the temperature of the liquid crystal changes, the spacing of the helix changes. This changes the wavelength of light that is reflected and the color that you see.

How does the calculator display work?

The liquid crystal display (LCD) in the calculator has many layers:



  1. Glass plate with polarizing filter oriented vertically

  2. Glass plate with electrodes to form the numbers

  3. Liquid crystal material

  4. Transparent conductive material

  5. Glass plate with polarizing filter oriented horizontally

  6. Reflective surface to send light back to the viewer

2000px-lcd_layers.png

Light passing through the first polarizing filter (1) becomes polarized, which means that the light waves are oscillating in one direction only. Polarized light cannot go through the second polarizing filter that is perpendicular to the first (5), because the light waves are not oscillating in the correct direction.
The liquid crystals molecules located between the two polarizing filters (3) are oriented to rotate the polarized light coming through the first filter by 90 degrees so that the light can pass through the second filter. The light is rotated just a little with each step along the liquid crystal helix until it reaches the other filter in the correct orientation.
When electricity is applied to specific regions of the display (2), the liquid crystal molecules line up with the electric field. This disrupts the helical alignment, so the liquid crystal can’t rotate the light.
When no electricity is applied, light travels though both polarizing filters, reflects off the mirror (6), and comes back to your eye. When electricity is applied to certain areas of the display, light passes through one filter but not the other, so that part of the screen is black.

How are liquid crystals used?

iphone_diy_nano_08_21.jpg

The properties of liquid crystals make them useful for many applications. Because the color of a liquid crystal depends on the alignment of its molecules, anything that disrupts that alignment can be detected by a color change.
Liquid crystals are used in displays for cell phones, laptop computers, and other electronics. In these displays, an electric field changes the alignment of the liquid crystal molecules and affects the polarization of light passing through them. Liquid crystal nanosensors can detect certain chemicals, electrical fields, and changes in temperature.

Credits and rights


This activity was adapted from “Disassembly of a Liquid Crystal Watch,” developed by the National Science Foundation-supported Materials Research Science and Engineering Center (MRSEC) on Nanostructured Interfaces at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. The original activity is available at: http://mrsec.wisc.edu/Edetc/nanolab/watch/index.html
Image of liquid crystal courtesy Gary Koeing, University of Wisconsin-Madison.
Diagram of LCD layers by Ed g2s, from Wikimedia Commons.


nsf

This project was supported by the National Science Foundation under Award No. 0940143. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this program are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Foundation.

Copyright 2012, Sciencenter, Ithaca, NY. Published under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-ShareAlike license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0





nano lower rt corner




Compartir con tus amigos:


La base de datos está protegida por derechos de autor ©odont.info 2017
enviar mensaje

    Página principal